Coastal management can be done in several ways either in a constructive vegetative or bureaucratic way. Good coastal management can bring benefits to the surrounding community. It is recognized that it is not easy to build community awareness to jointly manage a coastal area that it becomes an area of economic value which still prioritizes the sustainability and sustainability of natural resources on the coast. One example of management that has proven to bring economic benefits to the community is the management of the Pemuteran marine tourism area in Buleleng Bali Indonesia. Interestingly this management can work well thanks to the awareness of the community that cannot be separated from the role of local stakeholders in the region. Pemuteran village is a cultural village with marine activities as the main attraction such as diving and snorkeling which are part of ecotourism. Pemuteran marine tourism is located on the north coast of bali with the potential of natural beauty in the form of coral reefs.
The history of the Pemuteran tourism village began when the local community there built awareness to improve the damaged and declining coral reef ecosystem since 1980. Pemuteran is known as the poorest village in bali and most of its population only received education at the elementary school level. This is due to the geographical conditions in it which have a dry climate that it is not possible to cultivate rice which makes the population in pemuteran exploit coral reefs and fish in a way that is not permitted to meet their daily food needs. Twenty years later precisely in early 2000 awareness from local communities in Pemuteran started a coral reef restoration project in collaboration with foreign scientists known as bio rock technology. This technology is a method of restoring coral reefs through the process of adding minerals which is carried out by flowing a low-voltage electric current of about 1.2 volts to a steel frame that has been formed and submerged on the seabed. Initially acknowledged made gunarsa pemuteran sea pecalang who is also the founder of the karang lestari foundation it is not easy to awaken residents to abandon old habits in fishing. Some fishermen even protested when the area where they caught fish was restricted by the restoration of coral reefs. But after the consultation and sitting together and with the socialization of the residents to conduct comparative studies in other tourist objects in bali the fishermen also realized the importance of coral reef restoration as a place to live small fish. Since then the coral reef restoration project has benefited the community by increasing marine biodiversity and improving the environment for tourists through underwater attractions for diving and snorkelling jaminson 2009 it was recorded that in 2016 there was a fivefold increase with the activity of diving in the area of coral reefs and generated approximately Rp. 825 290 248 net profit per year.
The statement was also strengthened based on data from the government of the regency of buleleng from 2010 to 2015 which showed a decrease in unemployment by 85.31% in just 5 years (Trialfhianty 2017) the awareness of the local community in protecting the environment around the coast yielded very significant results seen from a comfortable quiet and clean beach area without hawkers selling merchandise along the coast. The coral reef at pemuteran beach has also been awarded several times on the international scene for its cleanliness and sustainability. The village in the last few years has been transformed into a marine tourism area that is most sought after by both local and foreign tourists especially those who like to do activities under the sea. The awareness of the local community in protecting the environment around the coast yielded very signifi ant results seen from a comfortable quiet and clean beach area without hawkers selling merchandise along the coast. The coral reef at pemuteran beach has also been awarded several times on the international scene for its cleanliness and sustainability. Pemuteran in the last few years has been transformed into a marine tourism area that is most sought after by both local and foreign tourists especially those who like to do activities under the sea. Now around 1500 households in this village have felt the impact of increasing economic prosperity from community-based tourism activities that are developing in the region (Dewi 2018)