At the 2016 EC-Council Security Analyst (ECSA) conference in Bremen, several notes were produced. The first is the coastal situation from natural conditions which are then anthropogenically modified shows that humans play an increasingly important role for the development of coastal and estuary science. Second, humans who influence global climate and environmental changes dramatically change the structure and function of coastal systems to systems with new conditions. Third, changes in the potential of ecosystem resources and services will significantly affect people’s lives. Then came a statement that was raised to be a special issue, ”We are the only ones who can change, through effective governance to encourage change to others to reduce pressure on coastal ecosystems.” From this statement, we must think about how to respond to what types will be changed and the availability of ecosystem resources and services.
The cause of the transition in the coastal system can be divided into direct and indirect effects by humans. Examples of direct change are resource use and pollution as well as changes in governance and use of coastal ecosystems. Indirect effects as if climate change, rising global average temperatures and acidification, as well as increased flood events and changes in rainfall patterns. Humans can be a key species as a cause of changes in socio-ecological systems. Studying the coastal transition from a social science perspective is an interesting effort considering that the coast consists of various things that overlap spatially and the interaction system. Coastal which is the boundary between land and sea until now has always been seen as something that stands alone from a scientific and policy perspective.
The processes towards sustainability can be simplified into five questions, namely looking at human perceptions and understanding preferences for coastal environments, then how to determine the value of related services, the scope of the value being studied, who should be involved to make decisions and how to ensure compliance. Coastal perceptions and preferences are the first thing done to understand the characteristics and level of their contribution in supporting sustainable programs and environmental policies. Community beliefs about economic benefits and potential conservation play a key role they will support or oppose policies. Existing research says that society always consists of a broad spectrum of perceptions. Both government and non-government institutions can learn that motivating people to share their personality types in contributing to marine conservation requires different methods.
An example is the decrease in productivity of marine fish resources in Manzanilla, Dominican Republic due to the expansion of fishing areas and the increase in the variety of hunting tools. In accord with the community, this problem can only be resolved by the local government. However, this could not be realized because the Manzanila government paid little attention to the problems experienced by fishermen. According to Maria del Mar, the problem of decreasing productivity and decreasing fish stocks can be overcome by the synergy of programs from several institutions, the government, the community, one of which is the MPA (Marine Protected Area) method which was built based on the synergy between NGOs, the government, and the community. Another study by Richard Pollnac conducted in Somalia showed that understanding fishermen’s perceptions of zoning in fishing grounds was one of the most influential factors in increasing fish resource stocks. The conclusion is that there are many opinions and theories about the management of coastal and marine space. Opinions and theories about the management of coastal and marine space will be very good if applied for policy making. We hope the creation of justice for all elements in the coastal and marine space.