There is no direct irrigation from nature but all are man-made. All processes that occur in irrigation will all become a hydrological cycle because not all irrigation water enters the ground but some will be evaporated into the air. One of the functions of irrigation for agriculture is to supply crop water needs and ensure water availability in the event of drought. This is closely related to the purpose of irrigation, which is to increase agricultural production. Today, the development of irrigation systems in several countries has brought irrigation to the era of modernization. Modernization of irrigation systems is realized through the five pillars which will be briefly explained below.
1. Water Availability
The first pillar is increasing water availability. This pillar is realized through water conservation. This pillar also discusses the protection of water sources, allocations and distribution. The reliability of water availability is done through the construction of reservoirs and dams in order to increase the capacity of water reservoirs. The quality of reservoirs and dams is an important factor affecting the availability of water for agriculture as well as for raw water for daily needs.
2. Irrigation Network Infrastructure
There is one important issue in irrigation modernization. The issue of modernization is directed at the adaptation of infrastructure within the framework of fulfilling services and providing optimal funding and human resources. Irrigation infrastructure has a very important role in flowing water to the fields that will be irrigated. Improvements to irrigation facilities and infrastructure are also included in this second pillar.
One System One Management is needed in the context of maintaining sustainable water resources. There is a need to strengthen irrigation management institutions, such as the farmers’ union community or the water user community. With a good service orientation from these communities, it can affect irrigation network performance. A strong and compact institution in irrigation management will certainly benefit farmers and water users.
This fourth pillar is important in irrigation systems. Without good management, the three previous pillars namely, the availability of adequate water or infrastructure will not maximally bring prosperity to farmers. Management is said to be good if it involves all parties who use irrigation.
The fifth pillar is also important, namely the actors (human resources). It is necessary to strengthen human resources, starting from the planning and knowledge of infrastructure. Human resources in question are farmers as the main actors as well as the main irrigation water users.
The five pillars become one interconnected cycle. Of course in a cycle if one is disturbed it will disrupt the whole cycle. Some experts also added one thing that was felt to be equally important in the irrigation system in addition to the five pillars above, namely financing. Funding is considered to be important and very influential about how the five pillars can work well.