Water Conservation,  Water Management

Restored Watershed

Based on its classification, watersheds are divided into watersheds that must be restored and watersheds that need to be maintained.  A watershed that must be restored is a watershed whose carrying capacity is not running as it should so.  Land conditions, quality, quantity, water continuity, and socioeconomic conditions in the watershed that need to be restored are not going well so that the following steps are needed to restore it.

 1. Optimization of land use in accordance with the functions and carrying capacity of the region:
Steps that can be taken such as banning land use on sloping land for tobacco cultivation.  Tobacco is a plant that cannot stand the puddles so that in cultivation it does not use a terrace.  The absence of this terrace is what makes sloping land planted with tobacco prone to landslides, so sloping land should only be used as forest.  Another example in Europe is the number of cattle being herded.  The optimal land for cattle grazing is 1 hectare for 5 cows.  If the number of cattle being herded is overstated, soil compaction will occur which makes water difficult to enter, or often referred to as overgrazing.

 2. Application of soil and water conservation techniques:

 Soil and water conservation techniques in watershed recovery aim to maintain the sustainability of water catchments, maintain the quality, quantity of continuity and water distribution.  The construction of several water structures such as reservoirs, checkdam is an example of the application of soil and water conservation techniques.

 3. Vegetation management:
This step has to do with land optimization.  Vegetation management is intended to preserve biodiversity, increase land productivity, ecosystem restoration and land rehabilitation.  The need to protect or maintain which areas are suitable for protection or production forests is one example of vegetation management.

 4. Increased public awareness and related roles and institutions: 

The principle of community awareness or awareness that human beings must be regulated and those entitled to regulate are related institutions, so that coordination and cooperation between communities and agencies in restoring watersheds should also be improved so that coordination and cooperation between communities and agencies can be improved.

 5. Development of watershed management institutions: 

This aims to improve coordination, integration, synchronization and synergy across sectors.  The watershed management institutions in each country may differ depending on the conditions and situation in the country.  In addition, the policies in force in a country are also factors in which watershed management institutions can develop.

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