In its implementation, river basin management requires synergy between various sectors as a whole, from upstream, middle to downstream. The upstream watershed functions as a conservative zone, where the ecosystem is maintained as much as possible so that the availability of water remains stable to meet the water needs of the watershed below. The middle watershed functions as a transportation zone between the upstream and downstream parts which usually functions as a managed utilization of river water to provide benefits for social and economic interests, related to irrigation infrastructure such as river, reservoir and lake management. The downstream part of the watershed is a sedimentation zone that functions as the use of river water for its use in agricultural activities.
The explanation this time tells about the utilization of the middle part of the watershed, particularly in relation to the function of irrigation infrastructure; reservoir.
Reservoir or reservoir is a natural lake or artificial lake, reservoir or river dam that aims to store water.
I am one of those who like to be near the reservoir. Whether it’s just to unwind, or to see the various activities that are in it. Reservoirs are also a place to learn how rainwater can be collected in a ‘giant bowl’ and can be channeled to various sectors that need it when the dry season arrives. Want to know what types of reservoirs are there? Let’s study together.
- RESERVE VALLEY
Built using a valley topography so that the reservoir water needs can be met. In some places, the construction of the valley reservoirs involves displacement of people and historical artifacts. The process of building a valley reservoir also involves splitting a river by constructing special tunnels or channels. In hilly areas, dams are usually built by expanding the existing lake. If the topography of the site is not suitable for a large reservoir, usually several small reservoirs are built and chains are made between reservoirs.
- RESERVE THE SIDE OF THE RIVER
Built by pumping water from a river.
Such reservoirs are usually constructed through excavation and construction on embankments which usually cover more than 6 km. Water collected in reservoirs like this is usually deposited for several months so that contaminants and turbidity levels naturally decrease.
- RESERVATION OF SERVICES
Collecting tanks are tanks that are built close to distribution points, with water that has been sterilized and cleaned. Service reservoirs are usually constructed in the form of water towers built on concrete pillars on flat land. Others are built underground, mainly for service reservoirs in hilly or mountainous countries.
- ARTIFICIAL RESERVOIR
Construction of homemade reservoirs is generally carried out on land that is free from the reach of residents or away from crowded areas. However, after completion, the reservoir function can be used to attract tourists or become a tourist attraction. This reservoir is usually built using a seminade on the side of the reservoir.
Some reservoir uses such as:
- Direct water supply: providing raw water through a water pipe
- Hydroelectric: power generation turbines
- Control of water resources: as a downstream water supplier, irrigation function, flood control and guarantee of water supply.
- Flow balancing: collect water when rainfall is high and drain when rainfall is low.
- Recreation: facilitates fishing, boats and other activities.
In addition to the above uses, the reservoir also functions as a place / location for fish farming in floating nets (karamba), with the aim of providing opportunities or opportunities, especially for people affected by reservoir inundation or people around the reservoir to have new livelihoods. or additional livelihoods. Activities in karamba include: hatchery, provision of floating net facilities and infrastructure, transportation, trading, and others.
In some areas, reservoir management, particularly fish farming in floating nets (karamba), has proven to have an economic impact on the surrounding community. However, in some areas, the socio-economic impacts of the reservoir have not been optimally utilized by the surrounding communities.