One of the characteristics of a healthy watershed is that in the rainy season the water does not overflow abundantly (flood) and when in the dry season there is still water (not drought). Reservoir is the best solution to make a watershed become healthy. Reservoir is a water building in the form of artificial ponds that are deliberately made to store and store water. When it rains, rain will be collected in reservoirs and during the dry season the stored water will be channeled to meet the needs of the surrounding community.
As a water structure which is an important part of watershed management, there are certainly advantages and disadvantages to the existence of reservoirs.
– As a store of water Reservoir is a place to store water during the rainy season so that it can reduce the risk of flooding.
– Used for irrigation purposes, domestic and industrial : Water stored in reservoirs can be used for irrigation purposes (agriculture), household needs (domestic) such as drinking water, water for washing, bathing, etc., also for industrial purposes.
– Travel : As a building that was intentionally made by humans, the reservoir has its own attraction for traveling.
– Hydropower : Some reservoirs are large in size and have a volume that water can be used to drive turbines as hydroelectric power plants.
– Fish cultivation : The reservoir can also be a livelihood field for the surrounding community to catch fish either independently or by floating net cage cultivation.
– Prevent floods and droughts downstream : Rainwater will be stored and stored so that it does not overflow into settlements. The stored water will also become a reserve when the dry season arrives.
– Reducing sedimentation downstream : Sedimentation is one of the factors causing flooding. With the reservoir will reduce sedimentation downstream.
– Flooding of people’s land : Reservoir construction requires a very large area of land and also an elevated land surface. So that the lands of the surrounding communities could become victims.
– Loss of protected forests : Of course in clearing land to build reservoirs, existing vegetation such as protected forests will also be reduced. This is certainly bad considering the reduced absorption of rainwater and groundwater storage.
– Conflicts of interest between communities : In some cases, conflicts of interest between communities in the upstream and downstream communities are triggered by the utilization felt by the downstream communities while the upstream communities feel obliged to conserve water without getting the same benefits.
It is not easy to manage a watershed so that it can be sustainable and sustainable, but that does not mean it cannot. Building a reservoir also does not always bring benefits. However, if we consider the benefits obtained, then making reservoirs is still an effort that is used.